1The reports of the three reviews are contained in the WTO documents G/SPS/12, G/SPS/36 and G/SPS/53.2. Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) of the World Health Organization for Plant Protection by the Commission on Plant Health Measures of the FAO International Agreement and Animal Health and Zoonoses by the World Organization for Animal Health3 ” Guidelines for the promotion of the practical implementation of Article 5.5,” WTO document G/SPS/15.4 “Decision to implement Article 4 of the agreement on the application of sanitary and plant measures WTO Document G/SPS/19/Rev.2.5`Guidelines for the Promotion of Practical Implementation of Article 6.6 of the Agreement on the Application of Health and Plant Health Measures WTO document G/SPS/48.6The most recent recommendations are being adopted SPS/7/7/Rev.3.7The SPS Information Management System is available at the following address : spsims.wto.org.8See G/SPS/33/Rev.1.9See www.standardsfacility.org.10See G/SPS/W/230, G/SPS/GEN/932/Rev.1 and G/SPS/W/247/Rev.1. In accordance with this agreement, members are fully responsible for meeting all of the commitments set out in this agreement. Members formulate and suspend positive measures and mechanisms to support compliance with the provisions of this agreement by entities other than the seats of central government. Members take appropriate measures at their disposal to ensure that non-governmental organizations located on their territory and regional entities to which the competent authorities on their territory are parties comply with the relevant provisions of this agreement. In addition, members do not take any action that directly or indirectly obliges these regional or non-governmental authorities or local authorities to act in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of this agreement. Members ensure that they rely on the services of non-governmental organizations to implement health or plant health measures only if they comply with the provisions of this agreement. The SPS agreement provides for three different types of precautions. First, the process of assessing risks and determining acceptable levels of risk involves the systematic use of safety margins to ensure that appropriate precautions are taken to protect health.
Second, each country, which measures its own acceptable risk, can address national concerns about the necessary health measures. Third, the SPS agreement clearly allows for precautionary measures when a government believes that there is insufficient scientific evidence to allow a final decision on the safety of a product or procedure. It also allows immediate action to be taken in emergency situations. These include health and plant health measures to protect the health of fish and wildlife, as well as forests and wild plants. Within the WTO, a special committee has been set up as a forum for the exchange of information between Member State governments on all aspects of the implementation of the SPS agreement. The SPS Committee verifies compliance with the agreement, examines issues that may have an impact on trade, and maintains close cooperation with the technical organizations involved. In a trade dispute over a health or plant health measure, the usual WTO dispute resolution procedures are applied and opinions can be sought from appropriate scientific experts.